Isfahan is a historical city in the center of Iran. The city is the center of Isfahan province. Isfahan is Iran’s third largest city and the third most populous city after Tehran and Mashhad. It is also one hundred and sixty-five most populous cities in the world and the ninth most populous city in West Asia. The city became the capital of Iran between the years 1722 and 1050, especially in the sixteenth century, during the Safavid kingdom, and prospered greatly. There are numerous monuments in the city, some of which are registered as UNESCO’s heritage sites. The city is renowned for its beautiful Islamic architecture, indoor bridges, mosques and unique minarets. So in popular culture it is known as half of the world. The Naqsh-e Jahan Square is an outstanding example of Islamic architecture. Among the most spectacular landmarks in half of the world are Monar Jonban, Si-o-se-pol, Khaju Bridge, Hasht Behesht Palace, Chehel Sotoun and Ali- Qapu.
Religion: The majority of people in Isfahan follow the religion of Islam and the Shiite religion. But Armenians, Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians and other religious minorities also live in the city.
Isfahan Twins: Xi’an-China, Kuala Lumpur-Malaysia, Florence-Italy, St. Petersburg-Russia, Yash-Romania, Barcelona-Spain, Yerevan-Armenia, Kuwait City-Kuwait, Freiburg-Germany, Havana-Cuba, Lahore-Pakistan, Dakar-Senegal, Baalbek-Lebanon, Neyshabur & Yazd & Tabriz-Iran, Hyderabad-India, Tokyo-Japan, Osun-South Korea
Naqsh- e Jahan Square
Naqsh- e Jahan Square: Naqsh-e Jahan Square is also known as historical name, Shah Square and after Revolution of Iran the official name of Imam Square, the central square of the city of Isfahan, which is located at the center of Historical Collection of Naqsh-e Jahan. It is also the most famous tourist attraction on the UNESCO World Heritage List. In this square, you can visit unique attractions such as Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, Imam Mosque, Isfahan Bazaar and the Ali Qapu Palace, or sit in the open air and enjoy the atmosphere there. In addition, two hundred two-storey buildings are located around the square, which is generally the Isfahan handicrafts supply station.
Imam Ali Square
Imam Ali Square in Isfahan was the most important city square before the Naqsh-e Jahan Square was built, it is also known as the Old Square. This square is located in the center of Isfahan city and consists of four main spaces including main square, front of the mosque, subway complexes and parking and peripheral sections of the square.
Jame Abbasi Mosque
Jame Abbasi Mosque in Isfahan is one of the most important monuments of the Safavid era. It is also known as the Shah’s Mosque, the New Sultanate, and the Abbasi Community and Imam Mosque. It is a masterpiece of architecture, tiling and carpentry in the seventeen century. The Mosque represents the culmination of thousands of years of mosque construction in Iran. Formation traditions, ideals, rituals and religious concepts, a map that has been perfected from the older and simpler types, the grand building elements and ornaments all in this mosque, with the grandeur that has made it one of the world’s largest monuments. This mosque is located on the south side of Naqsh-e-Jahan Square and, as is known from historical sources, its construction began in the third phase of the implementation of the Naqsh-e-Jahan Square design under the command of King Abbas the Great (1588-1629). And it ended in the reign of Shah Safi (1629-1642). The mosque’s construction began on April 19th in 1611. The first part of the building, the main entrance, was erected on the 17th century AD, according to the inscription of the mosaic of the head, which is in the Alireza Abbasi Thuluth script. But according to the inscription on the west porch which is in the script of Mohammad Reza Emami. The interior part of the mosque was completed by Shah Safi by installing its marble plinthes around 1637 AD.
Isfahan Jame Mosque
Isfahan Jame Mosque, also known as the Old Jame Mosque and the Friday Mosque in Isfahan, is one of the monuments of Isfahan, dating back to the eighth century. A small mosque that was built to fit the population of Isfahan and led to the growth of Isfahan’s urbanization. In the 4th year, at the behest of the caliph al-Mu’asat Abbas, the former mosque was demolished and a pillar-like building with a wooden roof was erected, which now part of its columns and walls has remained. But the most important changes were made during the Seljuq era. The architects of this period departed from the pattern of the “Arab Mosque” and created a new style known as the “Iranian Mosque” by building four porches on the north, south, east and west sides. the mosque was burnt down by the Ismailis in the year 1121, which was later restored. In the following centuries and in the Ilkhanid, Mozafari, Timurid, Safavid and Qajar eras, the mosque has undergone significant changes. Isfahan Jame Mosque was originally made of raw clay but bricks were used for reconstruction due to the brick’s durability, high construction speed and other factors. Fountain arches, quadrangular porches, facades, brick jars and various decorations have been used in this mosque to suit the architecture of each era of Iranian history and in the Khorasani (or Arabic) and Razi styles. It has created a pattern that has become a model for Iranian mosques and even other Muslim-majority areas.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque was built in (1602-1619) AD. It is one of the famous and well known mosques in Isfahan, on the eastern side of Naghsh-e Jahan square. It was built in the Safavid era. This mosque is a masterpiece of 17th-century AD architecture and tiling, built by renowned architects Mohammad Reza Esfahani. The Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque was built for eighteen years under the command of King Abbas I and is located on the eastern side of Naqsh-e Jahan Square, in front of the Ali Qapu Palace, in the neighborhood of the Shah Mosque. This religious site was built to honor Sheikh Lotfullah Macy and attracts many tourists each year.
Hakim Mosque or Jorjir Mosque
The Hakim Mosque or Jorjir Mosque is a four-porch mosque dating to the end of the Safavid era. The mosque was built during the reign of Shah Abbas II by his physician, Hakim Mohammed Dawood, at the site of the ruins of the dilemma Jorjir or the mosque of the owner of Ismail bin Abad in the 11th century AD. The inscriptions on the heads and porches inside the mosque are dated back to (1688-1694) AD and were written by Mohammad Reza Emami, the famous calligrapher of the Safavid era. The entrance of the Jojir Mosque is to the northwest of the mosque. The Dilemi Jorjir Mosque was called the “Minority Mosque” and was a beautiful and magnificent mosque in the second half of the fourth century AH.
Sadr Khaju School
Sadr Khaju School is related to the Qajar era and is located in Esfahan, a new market, and Darolshafa Market. Sadr Bazaar School is one of the Isfahan Seminary Schools with history and monuments. The school was built by the will of Mohammad Hossein Khan Sadr Isfahani, the grandfather of Fath Ali Khan Qajar, on a plot of land about 9000 meters in the first half of the thirteenth century. This school was founded by modeling the Chahar Bagh School on one floor and on the first floor there were 58 cells and six cells on the second floor.
Chaharbagh School, On the eastern side of Chahar Bagh street is a magnificent monument which can be considered as the last important and impressive monument built in the Safavid era in Isfahan. This school, also called the Sultani School and the School of the King’s Mother, was built during the reign of King Sultan Hussein, the last ruler of the Safavid dynasty. beacause it is located on Chahar Bagh street, it is also called Cahar Bagh School. The reason the Shah’s mother’s school is called because King Hussein’s mother has dedicated several inns and markets and other economic institutions.
Ali Qapou Palace
Ali Qapou Palace is a building that was originally the entrance to the Safavid government and was initially simple in shape, added to it over time during the reign of King Abbas and During the reign of Shah Abbas II, the porch was added. The building is located on the western side of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square and opposite the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque. It is 48 meters high and has 6 floors that can be reached by spiral staircases. What has made Qapou great among the magnificent and exquisite works of the Safavid era are the miniatures by the renowned Safavid artist Reza Abbasi. Also the last floor of the Ali Qapou Palace, called the “Music Room” or “Sound Room”. Its propylon is made entirely of flint.
Ashraf Hall is related to the Safavid era and is located in Sepah Street, Sepahari St., Isfahan, Iran. This work has been registered as one of Iran’s national monuments on January 6, 1932. The mansion, called Ashraf Hall, is the remains of the Safavid palaces that located in the Government House area, along with other mansions such as the Indoor Hall, the Hash Behesht Palace, the Posht Matbakh, the Rakib House, and the Timurid Hall constituted a collection of magnificent palaces of that time. The word “Ashraf” has led some buildings to attribute it to “Ashraf Afghan”. But studies by scholars indicate that Ashraf Hall was built during the reign of King Abbas II and was completed in the era of his successor, King Solomon.
Like many attractions in Isfahan, the Vank Cathedral was built during the reign of Shah Abbas. This is the largest and most beautiful church of Julfa in Isfahan which is very interesting in terms of decoration and interior. Vank Church Arch, which in Armenian means the Great Church, is one of the most beautiful churches of Isfahan in terms of gilded ceiling and interior dome and historical paintings. The church is also known as Sansou and Douamna perkich. The name (Vank) comes from the Armanian word (monastery).
Saint Georg Church
Saint Georg Church is one of the most interesting and spectacular Armenian churches in Jolfa, known as the Strange Church. In this church, large pieces of sacred stone (the Curch of Och) are kept.
There are also other churches in Jolfa, that consist of: Saint Stepanos Monastery, Nersess, Sarkis, Minas, Grigor, etc.Catholic and Protestant Armenians Also have their own church in Stone Masonry and Hakoup John.
Si-o-se-pol is a bridg over the Zayandehrod river in Isfahan. It has33 openings, and it is 295 meters long and 14 meters wide. This bridge is a unique masterpiece from the reigns of King Abbas I, built at the expense and supervision of his famous commander, Allah Verdi Khan, and with the architecture of Master Hussein Bana Esfahani, so it is also called the Bridge of Allah Verdi Khan. This bridge is a unique masterpiece from King Abbas I ‘s reign. It was built at the expense and supervision of his famous commander, Allah Verdi Khan, with the architecture of Master Hussein Bana Esfahani. And it was built to connect the old Chahar Bagh street to the upper Chahar Bagh street and the garden of Hezarjarib and Abbas Abad.
Khaju Bridge is one of the historical bridges in the city of Isfahan located on the east of Si-o-se-pol bridge on the Zayandehrood River. This bridge is located at the end of Kamal Ismail Esfahani Street and the end of Khajou Street. According to archaeologists, the bridge was built on a bridge that had already been destroyed It was one of the most beautiful bridges in the world during the Safavid era, it was built in the 1650 lunar year by the order of King Abbas II. The bridge is 133 meters long and 12 meters wide that with its many decorations and tiles, is one of the most prestigious works of Isfahan city.
Shahrestan Bridge is on the Zayandehrood River. The bridge was built during the Sassanid period and was repaired during the Dilmian and Seljuk period. The bridge is located in Old Jay, east of Isfahan. Its foundations rest on the natural rocks of the river floor. The length of the bridge varies from about 105 m to about 4/25 to 5 m in length from the circular brick column to the end of the old pavement. The direction of the bridge is north-south with a slight deviation. The city bridge has eleven springs and twelve large stone bases. But the upper part of the bridge has been damaged and only pedestrians can cross it. The city’s bridge has been registered as one of the national monuments of Iran on January1, 1970 with registration number 889.
Marnan Bridge is a bridge in Faezeh City on Motahhari Street between Felezi Bridge and Vahid Bridge. Marnan Bridge was the intermediary between the two north and south banks of the river in the western part of Isfahan. And the villages of Marbin via the Marbane Bridge (Marbane Bridge and Marbin Bridge) were connected to the opposite village on the south bank of the river. The present-day form of the Marnan Bridge has not changed with its construction in the Safavid era but has undergone frequent repairs. The bridge now has seventeen openings. It should be noted that the historical record of this bridge is in the administrative circulation phase.
Menar Jonban is one of the most famous historical monuments of Iran located in Atashgah Street, six kilometers west of Isfahan city and on the Isfahan road to Najaf Abad, in a neighborhood called Karladan. The minaret is an ancient building, built as a monument and two minarets on the anonymous mystic tomb of Uncle Abdullah Karladani, and is based on stone history, built in the year 1316 AD. It is one of the architectural works of the Ilkhanid period, with an area of about 4 square meters and minarets seven and a half meters high.
Khajeh Nezam ol Molk Tomb
Khajeh Nezam ol Molk Tomb Khajeh Nizam al-Molk was one of the competent and experienced Iranian ministers in MallekShah Kkingdown. Who led to the development of agriculture and land transfer systems and increased employment. The tomb of Malekshah Seljuk (Khajeh Nizam al-Molk al-Tusi) is located in the old district of Dar al-Batikh, nowadays called Ahmadabad. Khawaja Nazar al-Molk Tusi was one of the great men of literature and science, politics in the year 1072 and 1092 AD. His tomb is next to several Seljuk kings’ tombs. And unlike today’s monument, a good monument was on its gravestone. Mallek Shah was the beloved son of Alb Rsalan, familiar with all the weapons of war of his time. He was the king of one of Iran’s largest empires. The king extended his kingdom to Syria and Mesopotamia. He died in Baghdad in year 1092.
Garden of Flowers
Garden of Flowers A large collection of recreational, cultural, educational and research that many are a constant customer of that. Isfahan’s traditional architecture can be seen here because the old garden was also considered in the construction of this garden. Rocky gardens, garden waterfalls, herbs and edible gardens, and needle-leaf gardens are among the many attractions. The garden has recreational, cultural, educational and research function and this is its prominent feature.
Birds Garden is one of the tourist attractions in Isfahan, which attracts many tourists and attracts many viewers. Isfahan Bird Garden is part of the Nazwan Forest Park and the Zayandehrood River and is one of the few bird gardens in the Middle East. Isfahan Bird Garden was established in 1996 in four kilometers west of Vahid Bridge at the end of Najwan Park on the edge of Zayandehrood River and is now managed by Sofeh Organizing Project. Isfahan birds Garden is one of the tourism attraction in Isfahan with an area of more than 55000 m2 and it is actually one of the few bird gardens in the Middle East. The area under the lattice of the bird garden of Isfahan is 17,000 m2 and the lattice area 40,000 m2 located on 16 movable columns 32 m high. There are 130 species in 4000 plots in the Bird Garden of Isfahan. Isfahan Bird Garden has different habitats for birds according to the birds’ natural living conditions.
Isfahan Reptiles Garden is a different and of course, a fascinating place that was founded in Isfahan, in the park of Naizwan in 2007, along with several other attractions such as Isfahan Bird Garden, Butterfly Garden and Aquarium Isfahan. The center, measuring about 1,000 m2, has provided an opportunity for people and tourists to become more familiar with reptiles and to understand their important role in nature’s ecosystem. Visiting this place can provide a good opportunity to become more familiar with the native reptiles of Iran and the rest of the world. There are about 5 small and large viarium (places to keep plants or animals for viewing or researching) in the Reptiles of Isfahan where different types of reptiles and snakes are kept toxic and semi-toxic.
Fire temple of Isfahan
Fire temple of Isfahan is one of the historical monument and one of the ancient monuments of old Iran. It is located at the top of Atashgah Mountain, 8 kilometers west of Isfahan, and 2 kilometers after the Menarjonban and near the Zayandehrood River. Archaeologists have attributed the time of construction to the Sassanid era or earlier. Isfahan fire temple is recognized as one of the three ancient traces from ancient times. In terms of size, this place is the third work in the city of Isfahan and is one of the five great fire temples of Iran. Atashgah hill is a sedimentary rock. The building is a large, circular fireplace with multiple valves. This building is made of raw mud bricks 40 cm in length and width and 14 cm in diameter and it is made of materials, bricks, mud and gravel and reed beds.
Shaykh Bahai Hammam
Shaykh Bahai Hammam (bathroom): Isfahan’s many different baths are a symbol of the Iranian creative mind in architecture, with a special marble lounge for massages, places to relax, eat and drink Isfahan’s rose water. Sheikh Baha’i bath riddles are one of the most important mysteries of the unseen monuments, so that scientists have not been able to figure out the mystery of the ever-lit candle that has warmed the bath. Another mystery of this large bathroom was the warming of its large tank with a candle. This bath is located in the “Dar Dasht” neighborhood, 100 meters south of the Nizam al-Molk dome (next to the Atigh Mosque). Although it has architectural features of Safavid baths, it has been historically referred to as the mysterious bath. Because its water is heated without direct energy consumption. In other words, the thermal system of this bathroom is a masterpiece of engineering using the laws of physics and chemistry.
Pigeon Tower is a structure built for bird nesting, especially pigeons in the Middle East and Europe, the main use of these buildings is to collect bird droppings for use in agriculture, tanning, leather making and gunpowder. Pigeon towers are buildings that are seven to fifteen meters wide and have hundreds of places for pigeons’ nests of the same shape and size. The precise history of pigeon towers construction is unclear, but dates back to 700 years. The walls of the pigeon houses are made of clay and straw and have pigeons on the walls of the entrance. Generally, all kinds of intelligent science and engineering have been used in the construction of pigeon towers.
Ali Gholi Agha Hammam
Isfahan’s Aligholi Agha Bath is built by Aligholi Agha from the court of the two Safavid kings, King Suleiman and King Sultan Hussein Safavi, in a collection of which he himself was the founder of the year 1713 AD. The architecture of this bathroom is of late Isfahan style. The bathroom consists of two large bathrooms and a small dock space. Each of the two baths consists of two main porches and a warm house, so that men and women could use it separately.